Statistical mechanical of Gibbs and fluctuations (theory)
George A. Martynov
Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, http://www.phyche.ac.ru/
Moscow 119071, Russian Federation
Received January 05, 2020; peer reviewed January 10, 2020; accepted January 11, 2020
In Gibbs statistical mechanics, the state of thermodynamic equilibrium is identified with the state of absolute rest, at which particles do not move at all. In a result, the entropy in the Gibbs theory turns out to be a constant, independent of density and temperature, which contradicts the laws of thermodynamics. In fact, the state of thermodynamic equilibrium is a state of detailed equilibrium, at which particles continue to move along chaotic trajectories, but move in such a way that the average values of coordinates and momenta remain unchanged (stationary non-equilibrium state). Certain energy is associated with this movement. Taking into account the energy of these fluctuations leads to the fact that the entropy of the system, as it should, becomes a function of density and temperature. But, ultimately, this leads to radical changes in our ideas about the micro - world.
: thermodynamics, Gibbs theory, entropy, fluctuations
, 2020, 12(1):9-16.
Full-text electronic version of this article - web site http://en.rensit.ru/vypuski/article/312/12(1)9-16e.pdf