Vol. 12, no.1, 2020


Structural-kinetic changes of water in salt solutions and their dielectric and radio brightness characteristics

Andrey K. Lyashchenko

Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of RAS, http://www.igic.ras.ru/
Moscow 119991, Russian Federation
E-mail: aklyas@mail.ru

Received January 22, 2020; peer reviewed January 27, 2020; accepted Jznuary 30, 2020
Abstract. General approach to the analysis of the structure and dynamics of aqueous solutions of electrolytes is proposed. In the first region, which includes solutions of a wide range of concentrations, changes in solutions occur on the original matrix of the solvent, which is the water itself with its unique tetrahedral structure. The configurations of the hydrate shell are considered on the basis of the model of formation of structures of substitution and introduction of ions and long-lived hydrate complexes in the initial water structure. On its basis, the volume and other properties of solutions are explained and calculated. The method of dielectric spectroscopy in the centimeter (cm) and millimeter (mm) regions of the spectrum is used to establish new orientation patterns of the original network of H-bonds of water in salt solutions. On the basis of an experimental study of about 50 water-electrolyte systems at frequencies in the region of the main maximum dispersion of water and solutions, a systematics of changes in static dielectric constants and relaxation effects in electrolyte solutions is given. The features and molecular mechanisms of hydrophobic and hydrophilic ion hydration are separated. In the latter case, both distortion and stabilization of the water structure in the solution are possible (with structural correspondences with the hydrate shell). The development of the approach allows us to characterize the parameters of the intrinsic radiation of solutions with different ions in the mm range of the spectrum. Their change in relation to clean water may even differ in sign. This is due to the presence of contributions to the complex dielectric permittivity of both dipole and ion losses. The latter still remain significant at frequencies in the mm range. A new distant laboratory method for analysis of solutions and complex water-electrolyte systems based on their radiobrightness characteristics in the mm range is proposed.

Keywords: structure, solution, dielectric properties

UDC 546.8

RENSIT, 2020, 12(1):81-86. DOI: 10.17725/rensit.2020.12.081.

Full-text electronic version of this article - web site http://en.rensit.ru/vypuski/article/312/12(1)81-86e.pdf